Practical issues related to uterine pathology: endometrial stromal tumors
Uterine mesenchymal tumors continue to be a challenge to diagnose due to their non-specific clinical presentation, often non-distinctive gross appearance, varied (and many times overlapping) morphologic appearance, and unsuspected pitfalls in immunohistochemical expression. This review will focus on endometrial stromal tumors and those features that help in their distinction. In particular, a practical approach to the diagnosis of endometrial stromal neoplasia will be covered including recognition as a stromal process in a biopsy/curettage and distinction from a highly cellular leiomyoma. In addition, distinction of a stromal nodule from a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS) and stromal sarcoma with limited infiltration in a hysterectomy specimen will be covered. The salient features that help distinguish a LGESS from a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor as well as high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, the latter a tumor recently reintroduced in the WHO classification will also be discussed. Finally, a practical approach to the diagnosis of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) will be presented.
Mod Pathol 2016; 29: S92–S103. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2015.140