The emerging clinical relevance of genomics in cancer medicine
The combination of next-generation sequencing and advanced computational data analysis approaches has revolutionized our understanding of the genomic underpinnings of cancer development and progression. The coincident development of targeted small molecule and antibody-based therapies that target a cancer’s genomic dependencies has fuelled the transition of genomic assays into clinical use in patients with cancer. Beyond the identification of individual targetable alterations, genomic methods can gauge mutational load, which might predict a therapeutic response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors or identify cancer-specific proteins that inform the design of personalized anticancer vaccines. Emerging clinical applications of cancer genomics include monitoring treatment responses and characterizing mechanisms of resistance. The increasing relevance of genomics to clinical cancer care also highlights several considerable challenges, including the need to promote equal access to genomic testing.