Universal genetic testing for inherited susceptibility in children and adults with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: are we there yet?
Comprehensive genomic profiling of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases have enabled the detection and differentiation of driver and subclonal mutations, informed risk prognostication, and defined targeted therapies. These insights into disease biology, and management have made multigene-acquired mutation testing a critical part of the diagnostic assessment of patients with sporadic MDS and AML. More recently, our understanding of the role of an increasing number of inherited genetic factors on MDS/AML risk and management has rapidly progressed. In recognition of the growing impact of this field, clinical guidelines and disease classification systems for both MDS and AML have recently incorporated familial MDS/AML predisposition syndromes into their diagnostic algorithms. In this perspective piece, we contemplate the advantages, disadvantages, and barriers that would need to be overcome to incorporate inherited MDS/AML genetic testing into the upfront molecular diagnostic work-up of every MDS/AML patient. For centers already performing panel-based tumor-only testing, including genes associated with familial forms of MDS/AML (e.g., RUNX1, CEBPA, GATA2, TP53), we advocate optimizing these tests to detect all types of germline variants in these genes and moving toward upfront paired tumor/germline testing to maximize detection and streamline patient care.