Urological complications after treatment of cervical cancer
Several urological complications can occur after treatment of cervical cancer. Stage IB and IIA cervical tumours are mainly treated by radical hysterectomy; advanced-stage tumours are treated by chemoradiotherapy. In the past two decades, a decrease in complications has been seen due to improvements in therapy, although the exact incidence of lower urinary tract dysfunction is unknown. The main urological complications after radical surgery are hypocontractility of the bladder, detrusor overactivity, incontinence, low-compliance bladder, fistula and hydronephrosis. As a result of improved neuroanatomical knowledge, and consequently nerve-sparing surgery, bladder morbidity has been decreasing. Late radiation-induced urological complications include haemorrhagic cystitis, ureteric stenosis, low-compliance bladder and fistulas. Owing to technological improvements, such as dose reduction and decreased radiation fields, a decrease in radiation morbidity has been observed since 1990.
Nat Rev Urol 2014; 11: 110–117. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2013.323