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17-03-2015 | Genitourinary cancers | Book chapter | Article

18. New Molecular Markers with Diagnostic and Prognostic Values in Bladder Cancer

Authors: MD Asst. Prof. Hikmat A. Al-Ahmadie, MD Asst. Prof. Gopa Iyer

Publisher: Springer New York

Abstract

Immunohistochemical markers may be of value in the workup of urothelial lesions in some situations: (1) distinguishing reactive atypia from urothelial carcinoma in situ, (2) differentiating urothelial carcinoma from other carcinomas secondarily involving the urinary bladder, (3) confirming urothelial differentiation at a metastatic site, (4) determining the nature of spindle cell lesions of the bladder, (5) staging of bladder cancer, and (6) assessing the presence of lymphovascular invasion.The prognostic or predictive role of immunohistochemical or molecular markers in urothelial carcinoma remains limited, although promising. A number of urine-based assays may be utilized in the diagnostic workup of bladder cancer.

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