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11-06-2015 | Gastric cancer | Book chapter | Article

2. Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer

Authors: MD, FAC, G Massimo Rugge, MD, PhD Matteo Fassan, MD David Y. Graham

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Abstract

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite a decrease in its incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer still poses a major clinical challenge because most cases are diagnosed in an advanced stage, with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The most common causes are Helicobacter pylori infection (proven), Epstein-Barr virus infection (suspected), and familial. Major predisposing factors include high salt intake, smoking, and a familial genetic component. Primary prevention (i.e., H. pylori eradication) is increasingly recommended. Despite a growing understanding of both the phenotypic alterations and the molecular mechanisms occurring during gastric cancer carcinogenesis, no reliable biomarkers are available as yet for use in gastric cancer secondary prevention strategies.

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