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09-02-2017 | Image

Figure 6. Schematic representation of cHL showing the interaction between HRS cells and their microenvironment through cytokines/chemokine signaling and a summary of microenvironment-related biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in lymphomas.

Malignant cells and their extracellular context interact with each other dynamically and reciprocally through a variety of cytokines and chemokines secreted or expressed by malignant cells or tumor-infiltrating non-malignant cells in lymphomas, particularly in cHL. Many benign tumor-infiltrating cells that show diagnostic or prognostic significance in lymphomas can be located or numbered through some specific biomarkers detected by immunohistochemistry or gene expression profiling. APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand; BCL11A, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11A; BLC, B lymphocyte chemoattractant; CCL, Treg, regulatory T-cell; cHL, classical Hodgkin lymphoma; CSF1, colony stimulating factor 1; CTL, cytotoxic T-cell; FASL, Fas ligand; FDC, follicular dendritic cell; HRS, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg; IFNγ, interferon gamma; IL, interleukin; NK, natural killer; PD1, programmed death 1; PDL1, programmed death ligand 1; STAT1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1; SPARC, secreted protein acidic cysteine-rich; Th1, T helper 1; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor-α.