7. Epidemiology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Authors: MD, PhD Martin Höglund, Fredrik Sandin, Bengt Simonsson
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
National and regional population-based registries are, provided diagnostic accuracy and full coverage of the target population, indispensible tools for epidemiological research. CML registries with a more comprehensive reporting may also provide complementary data on treatment outcome to those obtained from clinical trials. Reports from several European CML registries consistently show a crude annual incidence of 0.7–1.3/100,000, median age at diagnosis of 56–60 years and a male/female ratio of 1.2–1.7. The incidence of CML has been stable over time. Worldwide, variations in reported incidence of CML may be due to methodological issues, but a true difference between different geographical areas and/or ethnical subgroups cannot be excluded. The prevalence of CML is less well known but has been estimated to 10–12/100,000 inhabitants with a steady increase due to the dramatic improvement in survival of these patients. In recent population-based studies, CML patients have an overall survival that is comparable to that shown in large clinical trials, though relative survival in patients >70 years is still decreased. The importance of socioeconomic factors and health-care setting for outcome, a possible increased risk of secondary cancer in CML and possible long-term adverse off-target effects related to the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are areas of ongoing epidemiological research.