A practical guide to bladder cancer pathology
Pathological assessment of bladder cancer is becoming an increasingly complex task owing to the growing availability of molecular data for different histological subtypes and the appreciation of their importance in determining outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Urologists are aware of the need to closely collaborate with pathologists, and comprehensive sharing of information is crucial to achieve optimal patient management. Numerous steps towards this goal have been made during the past years. Important advances in the assessment and reporting of grading and staging, especially substaging of pT1 urothelial carcinomas, have been made. As part of the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR), an international expert group has suggested worldwide reporting standards for urothelial lesions. Nevertheless, several issues remain unresolved, for example, regarding the reporting of heterogeneous lesions and substaging as well as the gross handling and the reporting for lymphadenectomy specimens. During the past few years, major insights have been gained into the molecular changes that occur during bladder cancer development, but a consensus on how to integrate these data into daily practice has not been achieved.