Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) Analysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
- Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Authors: Patrick R. Gonzales, Fady M. Mikhail
Publisher: Springer US
Purpose of Review
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic neoplasia consisting of incompletely differentiated hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage that proliferate in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. Clinical implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in cytogenetic laboratories allows for high-resolution analysis of recurrent structural chromosomal rearrangements specific to AML, especially in AML with normal karyotypes, which comprises approximately 33–50% of AML-positive specimens. Here, we review the use of several FISH probe strategies in the diagnosis of AML. We also review the standards and guidelines currently in place for use by clinical cytogenetic laboratories in the evaluation of AML.
Updated standards and guidelines from the WHO, ACMG, and NCCN have further defined clinically significant, recurring cytogenetic anomalies in AML that are detectable by FISH.
FISH continues to be a powerful technique in the diagnosis of AML, with higher resolution than conventional cytogenetic analysis, rapid turnaround time, and a considerable diagnostic and prognostic utility.